History You Can See
The story of Spain, a romance-tinged tale of counts, caliphs, crusaders, and kings, begins long before written history. The Basques were among the first here, fiercely defending the green mountain valleys of the Pyrenees. Then came the Iberians, apparently crossing the Mediterranean from North Africa around 3000 BC. The Celts arrived from the north about a thousand years later. The seafaring Phoenicians founded Gadir (now Cádiz) and several coastal cities in the south three millennia ago. The parade continued with the Greeks, who settled parts of the east coast, and then the Carthaginians, who founded Cartagena around 225 BC and dubbed the then-wild, forested, and game-rich country Ispania, after their word for rabbit: span.
What to See: Near Barcelona, on the Costa Brava, rocket yourself back almost 3,000 years at Ullastret, a settlement occupied by an Iberian people known as the Indiketas. On a tour, actors guide groups through the homes and fortifications of some of the peninsula's earliest inhabitants, the defensive walls attesting to the constant threat of attack and the bits of pottery evidence of the settlement's early ceramic industry. Not far away in Empúries are ruins of the Greek colony established in the 6th century BC. At the Museo de Cádiz you can view sarcophagi dating back to the 1100 BC founding of the city.
The Roman Epoch
Modern civilization in Iberia began with the Romans, who expelled the Carthaginians and turned the peninsula into three imperial provinces. It took the Romans 200 years to subdue the fiercely resisting Iberians, but their influence is seen today in the fortifications, amphitheaters, aqueducts, and other ruins in cities across Spain, as well as in the country's legal system and in the Latin base of Spain's Romance languages and dialects.
What to See: Segovia's nearly 3,000-foot-long Acueducto Romano is a marvel of Roman engineering. Mérida's Roman ruins are some of Spain's finest, including its bridge, theater, and outdoor amphitheater. Tarragona was Rome's most important city in Catalonia, as the walls, circus, and amphitheater bear witness, while Zaragoza boasts a Roman amphitheater and a Roman fluvial port that dispatched flat-bottomed riverboats loaded with wine and olive oil down the Ebro.
The Visigoths and Moors
In the early 5th century, invading tribes crossed the Pyrenees to attack the weakening Roman empire. The Visigoths became the dominant force in northern Spain by 419, establishing their kingdom at Toledo and eventually adopting Christianity. But the Visigoths, too, were to fall before a wave of invaders. The Moors, an Arab-led Berber force, crossed the Strait of Gibraltar in 711 and swept through Spain in an astonishingly short time, launching almost eight centuries of Muslim rule. The Moors brought with them citrus fruits, rice, cotton, sugar, palm trees, glassmaking, and the complex irrigation system still used around Valencia. The influence of Arabic in modern Spanish includes words beginning with "al," such as albóndiga (meatball), alcalde (mayor), almohada (pillow), and alcázar (fortress), as well as prominent phonetic characteristics ranging from the fricative "j" to, in all probability, the lisping "c" (before "e" and "i") and "z." The Moorish and Mudejar (Moorish decorative details) architecture found throughout most of Spain tells much about the splendor of the Islamic culture that flourished here.
What to See: Moorish culture is most spectacularly evident in Andalusia, derived from the Arabic name for the Moorish reign on the Iberian Peninsula, al-Andalus, which meant "western lands." The fairy-tale Alhambra palace overlooking Granada captures the refinement of the Moorish aesthetic, while the earlier 9th-century mesquite (mosque) at Córdoba bears witness to the power of Islam in al-Andalus.
Spain's Golden Age
By 1085, Alfonso VI of Castile had captured Toledo, giving the Christians a firm grip on the north. In the 13th century, Valencia, Seville, and finally Córdoba—the capital of the Muslim caliphate in Spain—fell to Christian forces, leaving only Granada in Moorish hands. Nearly 200 years later, the so-called Catholic Monarchs—Ferdinand of Aragón and Isabella of Castile—were joined in a marriage that would change the world. Finally, on January 2, 1492, 244 years after the fall of Córdoba, Granada surrendered and the Moorish reign was over.
The year 1492 was the beginning of the nation's political golden age: Christian forces conquered Granada and unified all of current-day Spain as a single kingdom; in what was, at the time, viewed as a measure promoting national unity, Jews and Muslims who did not convert to Christianity were expelled from the country. The departure of educated Muslims and Jews was a blow to the nation's agriculture, science, and economy from which it would take nearly 500 years to recover. The Catholic Monarchs and their centralizing successors maintained Spain's unity, but they sacrificed the spirit of international free trade that was bringing prosperity to other parts of Europe. Carlos V weakened Spain with his penchant for waging war, and his son, Felipe II (Phillip II), followed in the same expensive path, defeating the Turks in 1571 but losing the "Invincible Spanish Armada" in the English Channel in 1588.
What to See: Celebrate Columbus's voyage to America with festivities in Seville, Huelva, Granada, Cádiz, and Barcelona, all of which display venues where "The Discoverer" was commissioned, was confirmed, set out from, returned to, or was buried. Wander through the somber El Escorial, a monastery northwest of Madrid whose construction Felipe II oversaw and which is the resting place of Carlos V.
War of the Spanish Succession
The 1700-14 War of the Spanish Succession ended with the fall of Barcelona, which sided with the Hapsburg Archduke Carlos against the Bourbon Prince Felipe V. El Born market, completed in 1876, covered the buried remains of the Ribera neighborhood where the decisive battle took place. Ribera citizens were required to tear down a thousand houses to clear space for the Ciutadella fortress, from which fields of fire were directed, quite naturally, toward the city the Spanish and French forces had taken a year to subdue. The leveled neighborhood, then about a third of Barcelona, was plowed under and forgotten by the victors, though never by barcelonins.
What to See: In Barcelona, the Fossar de les Moreres cemetery, next to the Santa María del Mar basilica, remains a powerful symbol for Catalan nationalists who gather there every September 11, Catalonia's National Day, to commemorate the fall of the city in 1714.
What's not there in Spain can be just as revealing as what is. For example, there are no Roman ruins in Madrid, as it was founded as a Moorish outpost in the late 10th century and was not the capital of Spain until 1560, a recent date in Spanish history. Likewise, Barcelona has no Moorish architecture—the Moors sacked Barcelona but never established themselves there, testifying to Catalonia's medieval past as part of Charlemagne's Frankish empire. Al-Andalus, the 781-year Moorish sojourn on the peninsula, was farther south and west.
Spanish Civil War
Spain's early-19th-century War of Independence required five years of bitter guerrilla fighting to rid the peninsula of Napoleonic troops. Later, the Carlist wars set the stage for the Spanish Civil War (1936-39), in which more than half a million people died. Intellectuals and leftists sympathized with the elected government; the International Brigades, with many American, British, and Canadian volunteers, took part in some of the worst fighting, including the storied defense of Madrid. But General Francisco Franco, backed by the Catholic Church, got far more help from Nazi Germany, whose Condor legions destroyed the Basque town of Gernika (in a horror made infamous by Picasso's monumental painting Guernica), and from Fascist Italy. For three years, European governments stood quietly by as Franco's armies ground their way to victory. After the fall of Barcelona in January 1939, the Republican cause became hopeless, and Franco's Nationalist forces entered Madrid on March 27, 1939.
What to See: Snap a shot of Madrid's Plaza Dos de Mayo, in the Malasaña neighborhood; it is the site of the heroic stand of officers Daoiz and Velarde against vastly superior French forces at the start of the popular uprising against Napoléon. The archway in the square is all that remains of the armory Daoiz and Velarde defended to the death. Trace the shrapnel marks on the wall of the Sant Felip Neri church in Barcelona, material evidence of the 1938 bombing of the city by Italian warplanes under Franco's orders. East of Zaragoza, the town of Belchite was the scene of bloody fighting during the decisive Battle of the Ebro. The town has been left exactly as it appeared on September 7, 1937, the day the battle ended.
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